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Arielle18
Gast





BeitragVerfasst am: 13. März 2006 17:15    Titel: Texte auf Fehler durchlesen Antworten mit Zitat

Es wäre superlieb, wenn sich jemand diese Texte durchlesen und korrigieren könnte!
_____________________________________________________________

III. The first British women’s movement in the 18th century

The first women’s movement in England took place in the 18th century because women were disaffected of their situation. A reason for this disaffection was the industrial revolution. The circumstances degraded, this brought forth underfeeting. The women worked as hard as men but earned less money. They had to give their earned money to their husband.

But who were the women who fought for their rights? At first there were the women
from the intermediate layer or peers. These women wanted to excuse from the conservative female role under Queen Viktoria.

Female duties were to bear a child, to raise a family and to serve their husbands. Their wish was to be on par with men.

Some of them worked as woman teacher or headmistress. This was a possibility to lobby for education of children. An other positive aspect was, that these women were not dependant on their husbands. They tried to change the conservative thinking about the role of women for the future.

_____________________________________________________________

IV. Women in the 19th century
Schooling, university education, careers and professions and marriage

When Mary Wollstonecraft published her book “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” in 1792, many feminists accompany her opinion that girls should have the same educational opportunities as boys. There were only a few schools in the country that provided a good academic education for girls. Some feminists were forced to educate their daughters at home.
Josephine Butler was one of those girls who were taught by her mother at home. In her
book “An Autobiographical Memoir”, she describes her early experiences. Josephine Butler says that the girls had none of the advantages which girls later had. Her mother taught her what discipline means. Unlike to the two years she went to school in Newcastle with her sister.
“The lady at the school was not a good disciplinarian, and gave us much liberty, which we appreciated. In spite of the imperfectly learned lessons... the woman had a large heart and a ready sympathy.”




Others tried to form a new school. Instancing Louisa Martindale and Mary Francis Buss. Louisa Martindale tried to start her own school for girls in her home town of Lewes. But many people are against that idea so Louisa Martindale decided to abandon the project. Mary Francis Buss was more effective with her school for girls. She founded the North London Collegiate School for Ladies when she was twenty-three. The students of this school were enabled to have academic careers. Buss provided this kind of education over forty-four years.
Other women improved existing schools. Dorothea Beale, for example, became principal of Cheltenham Ladies College in 1858. This college became one of the most highly regarded schools in the country under Beale’s leadership.

In 1870 the first university college for women was founded by Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon: “Girton College”. But it was not recognised by the university authorities.
Other colleges followed. For example in 1880 the Newnham College that was established
at Cambridge University. “By 1910 there were just over a thousand women students at Oxford and Cambridge.” Female students were not allowed to take degrees and they had to obtain permission to attend lectures.
Because they were not allowed to take degrees at university, it was very difficult for
women to enter the profession. It was virtually impossible for women to become doctors, engineers, architects, accountants or bankers. But some of them coped with it. By 1900 there were 200 women doctors. The medical profession had allowed women to become doctors after a long struggle. This was the first course of studies for which women could make their graduation. From 1910 on women were allowed to become accountants and bankers.
But women were allowed to become teachers in the 19th century. Teaching was a low status job and was also very badly paid. However, in 1861 over 72% of teachers were women.4

In the 19th century women in England were expected to marry and have children. But a problem was that there were in fact a shortage of available men. By 1861 there were 10,380,285 women living in England and Wales but only 9,825,246 men.
Reasons why women outnumbered men were the following three:
• a large number of males served in the armed forces abroad
• the probability of dying for boys was far higher than for girls
• men were more likely to emigrate than women 5

The idea of the laws in Britain was that women would get married and that
their husbands would take care of them. After marriage the property of women was passed to her husband. Their earnings that they get by work also belonged to their husbands.

In 1882 the “Married Property Act” was amplified. This law entitled women to keep
presents from their parents, instead of abandon to their husbands. The amelioration of this law awarded women the whole control of their property.

The fundamental idea was that upper and middle class women had to stay dependant
on men their whole life. First as a daughter, later as a wife. It was very difficult for a woman to obtain a divorce. Men had the right to divorce their wives when they committed adultery. This right gave them the “Matrimonial Causes Act” of 1857. Different from how it is traditional today, after the divorce the children became the man’s property and the mother could be prevented from seeing her children.

The marriage was not always easy for women. Caroline Norton published an account of how her husband beat her during her marriage in 1854. They had been married about two months when she discussed some opinion her husband had expressed. Caroline Norton said one sentence which had consequences for her:
“I thought I had never heard a so silly or ridiculous a conclusion.”


This sentence was victimised by a sudden and violent kick. Caroline Norton was very afraid of her husband and sat up the whole night in another apartment.

_____________________________________________________________

V.Women in the 20th century - first results

In the 20th century more and more women in England worked in male jobs, for example in arms production. As 1917 already 1,5 Million more women worked than before the breakout of the first world war, women had a share in victory.

That was rewarded from the politicians on the 28th of March in 1917. Women get the right to vote and the right for a seat in parliament. But only women over 30 years were allowed to vote. That was not enough for them. They wanted the complete equality between man and woman. Men were allowed to vote when they were 21.

In December 1918 women had the first chance to vote and to campaign. Several
women campaigned for the seat in parliament. An irish nationalist was voted but she refused to accept the voting. In 1919 Lady Astor became first woman in the british parliament.

In 1929 women were allowed when they were 21 because of the “Equal Franchise Act”.
_____________________________________________________________

VI. One of the Pressure Groups: Women Social and Political Union (WSPU)

The Women Social and Political Union (WSPU) lobbied for the women’s rights in
England and was the leading organisation. The members of the WSPU were characterised as suffragettes.
The term “suffragettes” is derived from the latin word “suffragium” and means translated “voting right”. The description suffragettes was first used by a journalist of the “Daily Mail”, Charles Hands.

The WSPU was founded in Manchester on the 10th of October in 1903 by six women .
They moved offices to London in Autumn 1906. London was the best chance for the WSPU to lobby Parliament and court newspapers more effectively. Original members of this organisation were Emmeline Pankhurst with her daughters Christabel and Sylvia. The reason for this formation was that Emmeline Pankhurst thought that other organisations were not radical enough. I will dwell on Emmeline Pankhurst in VII. 1.

The organisation consisted only of women and fought for an enlargement of women’s rights. Furthermore they lobbied for social reforms in collaboration with the independent Labour Party. Their slogan was “Deeds not Words”.

In 1905 the WSPU was able to argue a british member of the Parliament into exhibit a bill for women’s rights. This bill failed but the connected media response accounted for an accretion of the group. Many middle-class and some working-class women joined in.
On the basis of the failing of the bill the WSPU changed its course of action. The suffragettes concentrated henceforth on attacking all political parties which were represented in Parliament. Now they focussed only onto female suffrage.

In 1906 the WSPU started to point on themselves with demonstrations. Consequence
of these demonstrations were many arrests of suffragettes.

In 1907 the organisation published a monthly journal called “Votes for Women” and
hold several conferences, which they gave the name “Parliament of Women”.

In 1908 the WSPU organised a demonstration with 500.000 participants in Hyde Park
London. During the summer the WSPU introduced the tactic of breaking the windows of government buildings. Victim of one of these attacks was the house of the Prime Minister. As a result of this demonstration twenty-seven women were arrested and sent to prison.

In October 1908 the WSPU tried to enter the House of Commons. There were violent arguments with the police and twenty-four women were arrested. Under these twenty-four women was Emmeline Pankhurst, one of the leaders of the WSPU. She was sent to prison for three months.

In 1910 a new bill was exhibit in Parliament. Intention of this bill was to enlarge the women’s rights. After this initiative had not found directly the needful support the WSPU became more militant. They throw in shop windows of stores, set fire to big country estates and bombed public buildings, thereunder Westminster Abbey. Many women who stood in focus of publicity hook up with these activities. For example the composer Ethel Smyth, who wrote the hymn of the WSPU: “The March of Women”

The women who were sent to prison went on hunger-strike. The government was afraid that these women become martyrs. The suffragettes were allowed to go on hunger-strike but as soon as they become ill they were released. Once the women had recovered, the police re-arrested them and returned them to prison where they completed their sentences. This successful means of dealing with hunger-strikes became known as “The Cat and Mouse Act”.

In the summer of 1914 the number of active members was very small. 1000
suffragettes had been imprisoned for destroying public property, including all the leading members.
Two days after England declared war on Germany in 1914 all political activity had to be suspended until the war was over. All suffragettes were released from prison, ended their militant activities and helped the war effort.

In 1917 the WSPU broke up with its work.
Ulli
Ehrenmoderator


Anmeldungsdatum: 03.07.2004
Beiträge: 1389

BeitragVerfasst am: 13. März 2006 19:07    Titel: texte Antworten mit Zitat

Hi Arielle 18,

das ist ja die reinste Doktorarbeit - so nach und nach können wir dir helfen. smile

_________________
LG Ulli

Tomorrow is often the busiest day of the week.

Spanish proverb
Arielle18
Gast





BeitragVerfasst am: 14. März 2006 14:58    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

Nach und nach reicht mir auch vollkommen Augenzwinkern Bin nicht davon ausgegangen, dass das jemand sofort macht und dann auch noch den ganzen Text
Ulli
Ehrenmoderator


Anmeldungsdatum: 03.07.2004
Beiträge: 1389

BeitragVerfasst am: 14. März 2006 18:46    Titel: text Antworten mit Zitat

@Arielle: mein Korrekturvorschlag zu III. Augenzwinkern


III. The first movement of British women in the 18th century

The first women’s movement in England took place in the 18th century because women were disaffected of their situation. A reason for it was the Industrial Revolution. The circumstances degraded, this brought forth underfeeding. Women were working as hard as men but earned less money. They had to give their earned money to their husbands.

But who were the women who fought for their rights? At first there were the women
of the intermediate layer or peers. These women wanted to excuse from the conservative female role under Queen Viktoria.

Female duties were to bear a child, to raise a family and to serve their husbands. Their wish was to be on par with men.

Some of them worked as a woman teacher or headmistress. This was a possibility to lobby for education of children. Another positive aspect was, that these women were no longer dependent by their husbands. They tried to change the conservative way of thinking about the women's role for the future.


smile

_________________
LG Ulli

Tomorrow is often the busiest day of the week.

Spanish proverb


Zuletzt bearbeitet von Ulli am 15. März 2006 07:18, insgesamt einmal bearbeitet
Arielle18
Gast





BeitragVerfasst am: 14. März 2006 19:49    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

ui, danke smile das ging ja doch relativ schnell! Ganz ganz lieben Dank!!!
Ulli
Ehrenmoderator


Anmeldungsdatum: 03.07.2004
Beiträge: 1389

BeitragVerfasst am: 15. März 2006 07:19    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

Arielle18 hat Folgendes geschrieben:
ui, danke smile das ging ja doch relativ schnell! Ganz ganz lieben Dank!!!



Bittte smile

_________________
LG Ulli

Tomorrow is often the busiest day of the week.

Spanish proverb
Ulli
Ehrenmoderator


Anmeldungsdatum: 03.07.2004
Beiträge: 1389

BeitragVerfasst am: 15. März 2006 12:16    Titel: text Antworten mit Zitat

@Arielle18: hab gerade ein wenig Zeit smile


IV. Women in the 19th century
Schooling, university education, careers , professions and marriage

When Mary Wollstonecraft published her book “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” in 1792, many feminists accompany her opinion that girls should have the same educational opportunities as boys. There were only a few schools in the country that provided a good academic education for girls. Some feminists were forced to educate(vermeide Wiederholungen: statt educate: to tutor....). their daughters at home.

Josephine Butler was one of those girls who was(was: bezieht auf one=Singular) taught by her mother at home. In her
book “An Autobiographical Memoir” she describes her early experiences. Josephine Butler says that the girls had none of the advantages girls later had. Mrs Butler taught her what discipline means. Unlike??? to the two years she went to school in Newcastle with her sister.
“The lady at the school was not a good disciplinarian, that is why gave us much liberty which we appreciated. In spite of the imperfect learned lessons that woman had a heart of corn (phrase) and a ready??? sympathy.”

Wink

_________________
LG Ulli

Tomorrow is often the busiest day of the week.

Spanish proverb
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