|Verfasst am: 21. Mai 2016 13:41 Titel: Referat korrektur "History of Black in the USA"
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For every person the same rights and chances!?
In the USA this was not yet always thus and one can also not even today really that is applies for everybody. The development of the opportunities of Afro-American is a dark chapter in the history of the USA. Each of you has heard certainly already something of their situation and especially their suppression.
I want to show you today the development of the situation of Blacks in the USA.
Arrival of the blacks in the USA ? slave trade
In 1619 the slavery has started in the south of the USA. 20 Africans were arrested and taken by ship to Jamestown Virginia. By the impetus of the plantation system in the south of the USA the number of the slaves rapidly increased. Later, a large number of slaves were also used in the North as a cheap worker. The difference between slavery in the north and slavery in the south was at work. In the north the slaves were employed as house staff. In the south they had to do difficult works on the plantations and lived crowded together in small log cabins. It was Important, however, in the north as well as in the south they obeyed their Lord.
As slaves only black Africans and Indians were considered, because they saw them as an inferior and underdeveloped race.
Arrived in the USA, they were auctioned on the slave market to rich land owners, because they had large cotton plantations and had therefore always an amount of workplaces for cheap workers. On the slave market they were first washed, then shaved and freshly dressed. Then they were put up to the size and (after) the gender sorted. Of the customer the slaves were looked exactly, touched, questioned and her/their quickness was tested. Things like scars on the back or not quite white teeth complicated the sale of the slaves.
Initially it was on ground of the small amount of slaves are no laws regulating their rights. As of 1641 there were the first laws for slaves, these regulated what needed to be done with runaway slaves.
Civil war? Abraham Lincoln
Only with the American war of independence of 1775-1783 laws would be drawn up regulating the legal, social and political situation of the slaves towards her owners. Security in the age, protection in case of illness, recognition of their religion, leisure regulation and the right to the wedding, were some of the rights which received the slaves at that time. Only a few kept to these laws, nevertheless. Who did not submit to his Lord, had to reckon with bad penalties, up to the death. From 1788 the constitution of the United States of America was considered, she offered each of the state´s sovereignty and the possibility to make their own decision in regards to the dealing with the slaves. In 1800 there were approximately 900.000 slaves in the USA, including men, women and children.
The north abolished (the) slavery and developed into an industrial metro pole. In the south you lived in a more conservative. Agriculture brought the money, which is why an abolition of the slave trade was possible by no means.
The north wanted to bring the south by political pressure to abolish the slave trade. England exerted in 1814 pressure on all European countries which traded with slaves. As a result almost all states banned the slave trade. The "Ashburton Treaty? was a contract closed in 1842 between England and the USA, he regulated the mutual control of the navy on (the)slave trade. In the south one handled henceforth devotedly with his slaves, because there were no more supplies to replace them.
The situation in the country came to a head slowly. Abraham Lincoln, an opponent of (the) slavery became in 1860 the president of the USA. Thereupon 11 south States decided to secession from the Confederation and formed "Confederate States of America?, because they depended on the slave trade. A prohibition of the slave trade would have overthrown the Southern in an economic abyss and would have solved them of her political independence. Jefferson Davis became the president of the confederacy. The constitution of the ?Confederate States of America " was almost the same like in the north of the USA, the crucial difference was, nevertheless, the property of slaves was granted.
12th of April, 1861 the civil war began with the artillery bombardment of the Fort through the south states. After the fort surrendered, Abraham Lincoln let advance his army from the north. The south was prepared and was thus able to win the first battles. The technical progress of the north shows itself to be advantageous and soon the south had no more chance. A naval blockade and the supply shortage meant the final defeat of the south. The length of the war led to an increasingly harder battle and caused a lot of victims, also among the civilian population and left a large area of the devastation. Later one called the civil war on account of that also devastation war. The last battle took place around the capital of the south Richmond Virginia. The civil war was finished with the surrender of the south on the 9th April, 1865.
During the civil war, on 22.9.1862 Abraham Lincoln announced the termination of the slavery in the ?Emancipation Proclamation", in it he said from 1863 all slaves should be free. Many, nevertheless, remained with their masters, because they had no property and no education and therefore also hardy had a Chance to build a life of your own.
Abraham Lincoln had saved the union and shortly after his death the end of the slavery (asserted itself) in the USA. However, big hatred could not defeat continued, he remained, the hatred between the citizens in the south and the citizens in the north, the hatred between black and white.
Ku Klux Klan
In 1866 the Ku Klux Klan was established in Tennessee, a racist secret society. It executed lynching?s and racist terror. He tortured, tormented, raped, kidnapped and shot a multiplicity of Afro-American and civil rights activists.
The Clan was founded by 6 men who were in the civil war. Initially they rode with her horses in white cloths wrapped through the city and frightened the black, because they thought that they are the spirit of the dead Confederate soldiers. This fear awakened in the men the idea, the rebuild the old orders. They wanted to push Afro-Americans bake to slavery. The Ku Klux Klan repeatedly led away possible members and tested whether these owned enough fury on the northern states and advocated the slave trade. That one who consisted the test, became a member, the others were expelled. The main goal of the clan was to take the Black their right to vote and to make them slaves again. The clan carried out murders of black prisoners. In addition, they attacked Afro-American business people and immigrants, because they thought, these would be the success of the slavery hostile republican party . Soon nobody had the control of the clan; because of the secrecy of the clan it was hardly possibly to guide the Clan. On account of this one ordered all members in 1867 to a full assembly. At that time they wanted establish certain principles, the clan saw itself as a ?institution of the chivalry, humanity, mercy and the patriotism ". The central aim was the supremacy of the white race. The clan had achieved his aim in the 1870s, with the white supremacy and (the) strict racial segregation and also due the political pressure the Ku Klux Klan disbanded. In 1915 the clan re-emerged, now Jews, Catholics and socialists counted to those one had to defeat. At the time many of the clan members possessed a political office. Their main tasks were still committing of crime, by the court in the South they were punished, but only rarely.
In the 1950th the Ku Klux Klan found again big reminiscence by the conservative southerners, since they saw in him defence against the civil rights movement and the end of racial segregation. The Clan implemented a large number of arson attacks on black church municipalities, attacks on private houses and civil rights activist. The clan also attempted to connect internationally with right-wing extremists. In 1987 the clan resolved, because he could not cope with the payment of seven million dollars, due to Lynch´s murder.
Indeed it was rebuilt second time and still exists today, however he only has a few thousands followers in a powerless and fragmented form.
Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King
In 1876 laws of the racial segregation were decided, these were strictly adhered. The laws should keep black and white citizens in the public separately. There were schools, hospitals, shopping markets and restaurants were only for white or black citizens accessible or at least separate sections for white and black owned. Thus it was with Public transport. The front area of a bus was reserved for the white, rear for the black, then there was a so-called "grey area" were allowed to take place both white and black. Wanted a White took place in the grey area, the black had to empty the area.
The civil rights activist Rosa parks refused to surrender her place in the grey area for a white to surrender, while all other black left her place in the grey area without a fight. Even after several demands of the bus driver she did not command the court to vacate. Thereupon she was arrested and sued for ?disturbance of the public peace". She explained her action with the sentence: " I did not want to be constantly insulted for something I have no influence - the colour of my skin?.
This case leads to the indignation and aroused the attention of the whole nation. On the 5th (of) December, 1955 the court held a hearing of Rosa parks as she climbed in front of the town hall from the car she was greeted by a cheering crowd. One heard the phrase "you have messed with the wrong ". The black citizens of the US stood behind her.
On the same day one of the organisation "Montgomery Improvement Association" organised a one-day protest action took place, under the leadership of Martin Luther King. This action announced Martin Luther King and it was the first step in direction of the resolution of racial segregation. It was a city-wide bus boycott; the black citizens were invited to walk during this day or to form car pools. In Alabama there are approximately 42.000 black citizens and almost every one of them participated in the action. On the same evening Martin Luther King held a speech in front of 7.000 black people; he demands them to lead on the bus boycott and announced the demands of the blacks. This includes respectful treatment and equal rights for everybody, as well as the adjusting of dark-skinned bus drivers. After 381-days bus boycotts the Supreme Court backed down and declared in December, 1957 the lawn separation in public transport as no longer valid.
Ten dollars was the price Rosa parks had to pay for "disorderly behaviour" and "violation of public regulation". However, this was not the only consequence of their misbehaviour. She and her husband were fired and did not get a new job assent. Death threat received Rosa Parks over and over again. In Alabama the couple could not become happy. On account of that they moved in 1957 to Detroit, in the hope of a restart.
Rosa park´s action and the following success of the bus boycott motivated Martin Luther King to continue his fight for freedom and the Fight for the equal opportunities for the black.
Also the multitude of insults and threats after the bus boycott action, the bombardment of his house and his arrest, because he 5mph (miles per hour) faster than allowed did not stopped him.
In 1957 he founded the "Southern Christian Leadership Conference", a civil rights organization fighting for the rights of Afro-American, for example, she advocate for the equal rights in elections. Martin Luther King participated in many protest actions, Sit-ins and similar to the resolution of racial segregation.
In 1962 he discusses with the president John F. Kennedy some civil rights issues. But all of these actions didn´t influenced the opportunities and rights of black people in the USA.
With his world-famous speech, " I have a dream " on (the) 28th August, 1963 in front of the Lincoln memorial and the (related) protest march from the Washington monument to the Lincoln Memorial, he pulled once again big attention to the issue of Racial segregation in the USA. More than 250.000 black arrived as well as white citizens and were involved in his movement and his protest against racial segregation. The Speech he held as an account of severe collisions between the police and peaceful black protester. His speech "I have a dream" should be an Appeal to (the) fight against the still existing racial discrimination in the USA. He mentions in his speech that all people are equal and sometime the blacks and white, the slaves and the Lords meet at the table of brotherhood. In his speech it is first of all about the future of blacks in the USA and therefore also (about) the future of his children. Here is a quote from his speech: "I have a dream, that my four Children will one Day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the Colour of their Skin but by the content of their Character". Before his speech, read another 10 concrete demands for the resolution of racial segregation, many of the well-known civil rights activist, including White gave a short speech.
With his speech he laid the basis for the legal abolition of racial segregation and gave a guarantee on an unconditional right to vote for black.
In 1968 Martin Luther King was shot after a speech in Memphis by James Earl Ray.
With Barack Obama the first Afro-American came into power 2008 as a president in the USA. A lot of see this as a culmination in the development of the emancipation of African in the racist nation. He is the symbol for full equality in the USA, its position as the first black president, completes the deeds of Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King.
Barak Obama woke the faith in the strength of the self-renewal of the country and promised the change of the USA. The citizens expect of him, among other things, that he enforces the civil rights again and stabilises the social system of the USA. His task is to unite the divided US-society and to thus solve the social, ethical, religious, political and juridical separation of the citizens.
The belief in the transformation of the USA by Barack Obama escapes quickly. Many are of the opinion that he speaks not enough about racism and apply too seldom for Afro-American. The columnists Maureen Dowd says: "He behaves as if his choice would have been alone change enough as if he must not deal now with race further?.
Situation of the blacks in the USA today
Nevertheless that the racial segregation was dismissed in the USA already for a long time, the opportunities and rights of the black have not improved until this day. The racial segregation in the USA is still noticeable; the Afro-Americans are severely disadvantaged and have to deal with problems which no white one knows. These problems include Poverty, unemployment, poor education and police arbitrariness.
A study of Harvard University in Massachusetts shows that the majority of black pupils are informed in black schools and the white in white schools, everyone stays where he belongs. Only 30% of the black pupils spend their school day in a white school. Often, Blacks have no educational conclusion.
The quality from white to black schools shows a big difference, among other things this also lay with the large financial and social difference between both society groups. This allows us to conclude that the chances of later success in the profession among White and Black showed strong differences.
The auxiliary organisation "Nationally urban League? announces that the assets of Afro-American's 56% of the assets of a white citizen.
According to statistics more than one quarter of Black life in the USA in poverty, in the case of the white ones it is less than tenth.
To land, the risk due to a criminal offence in prison is also different between black and white. Every third black man must go to prison, among the white it is only every seventeenth.
However, nevertheless a ray of hope on improvement remains the respect of the white towards the blacks increases more and more, especially among the younger generation. The acceptance of Afro-American in all areas grows steadily.
Many thanks for your attention!
Thanks you for your attention!
(Do you have any questions?)